Categories
Uncategorized

Net neutrality and hotel carrier

Carrier hotels and big data centers provide convenient sites for the telecom and networking industry to communicate with other telecom companies on a physical level, in a neutral facility that offers a high density of carriers available. As communications around the world continue to move towards packet networks and services, IP exchanges and interconnection points will add more value to the global telecommunications community.

Large networks claim compensation from smaller networks and content providers for using their own infrastructure, while the Internet community in general requires free access (network neutrality) to that infrastructure used or contracted from large enterprise-based networks. Carrier hotels are essential for the survival of smaller companies in the hope of competing with well-known utilities including AT&T, Verizon and BellSouth.

Legislation such as HR 5252, without specific network neutrality protection, will drive the second level of network providers to develop parallel infrastructure using wireless and physical cable, as well as stronger peer relationships that allow to bypass large network infrastructure. Carrier Hotels support stronger strengthening relationships between smaller networks and content providers by allowing a neutral connectivity environment, bypassing large wholesale or transport network infrastructure.

Hierarchical internet

Over the past fifteen years or so, the Internet has been divided into three main levels:

• Level 1 – Spine Carrier. These first tier carriers depend on establishments and carry the entire internet routing schedule. Typically recognized Internet providers that Level 1 includes Verizon (formerly known as UUNET / MCI Internet), Sprint, AT&T, and Cable & Wireless.

• Level 2 – Regional and Second Internet. They are usually facility-based, yet still rely on a level one level for some routing and transit operations. This includes cable TV networks, CLEC, and second-tier international carriers such as France Telecom Open Transit and Level 3.

• Level 3 – Access to networks and content service provider networks.

An overview is a concept that allows networks to enter into mutual agreements that allow traffic to be transmitted directly between its networks, without the need to use a higher-level network for this transport. The paid look is how Level 2 and Tier 1 networks charge smaller networks in order to access their core networks or allow their network subscribers to access the rest of the Internet in the world.

The Neutrality Network assumes that users will be able to control the type of content or applications they produce or access, regardless of the degree or quality of service. Consequently, whether you pay for a dedicated port that you can handle, or if you pay a usage-based billing model, all you pay is the ability to send and receive packets at the price agreed in your contract with a level 2 upstream or level 1 network provider.

Current legislation (HR5252) would grant level 2 and level 1 carriers much greater control over the product content and applications used by both level 3 networks and content / application providers, but also limits the ability of end users to use network applications. Some of the most common examples are VoIP or VoIP. Level 1 and Level 2 networks claim VoIP requires higher quality of service, and therefore places unreasonable demands on the underlying network. They claim that content providers, such as Google and Yahoo, are able to provide their content to users at no charge or charge to backbone network providers who use them as transport networks.

Originally verbiage in HR5252 included a network neutral discussion. Network neutrality is the principle that "Internet users must control the content they watch and the applications they use on the Internet." From the start, the Internet worked on the principle of neutral network service provider, nurturing technical innovations, developing online industries, and creating a truly global community and market.

The Internet was built with the idea of ​​openness, which was only challenged by restrictive governments who believed it necessary to limit citizens ’freedom to access and display open information. With IPv6, governments will continue to find control over the Internet which is a tough proposition, because IPSEC will increase their ability to reduce or intercept data.

Carrier hotels and neutral network support

Carrier hotels are inherently real estate. Carrier hotels earn money by renting or licensing footprint, uninterruptible power, cooling and interconnection. The more interconnections and networks within a property, the more important that characteristic of the telecommunications and network community becomes. The logic is very simple. If you are in a carrier company, you can generally connect to another network or carrier by using a local area connection, and in some cases simply a "bird" cable. If you are geographically separated in a data center from a major transport company hotel (such as One Wilshire, 60 Hudson, The Westin Building, or Telehouse), or if you are a tenant in a data center that is currently managed by a transport company, then the cost of communication with another will be network providers And transportation companies are much higher.

A carrier hotel, such as One Wilshire, may have more than 300 carriers and service providers present as tenants within a single building. Most of these tenants will have a direct presence within the conference room occupied by the buildings, allowing all transportation companies to easily reach each other as they are all in close proximity.

The Carrier Hotel is a site where Level 3 and Tier 2 networks, as well as content and application providers can communicate directly. This allows these networks to "peer" without the need to send traffic through a large carrier or carrier from Level 2/1. In many cases, telecom operators and content providers or smaller applications can use the peer on an equal footing, with no funds passing between networks. This is important in cases where a content provider might send a massive amount of traffic to small network users. Both the content provider and the Level 3 network are likely to have paid peer arrangements with primary networks, leading both companies and their users to pay for essentially the same number of visits.

Carrier hotels may also offer additional utilities or options for Level 2 and Tier 3 networks to connect. One Wilshire and 60 Hudson work on toolkit exchanges, allowing packet networks (Internet and Internet content / applications) to communicate through an Internet exchange. Internet Exchange, such as One Wilshire & # 39; s Any2 Exchange, allows network and content providers to communicate over a single high-speed connection, then communicate with any or all other Exchange participants without having to use physical cables or port consumption.

ByPass and package exchange

The Internet is a rich environment that supports the continuous development of technologies, products and services that support communication. Three areas that have seen rapid development, in addition to growth, are Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), interactive entertainment, such as multi-user games, and on-demand rich media (video). The three need high performance access to end users, and they have the potential to produce large amounts of network traffic.

In the world of broadband access, most users connect to their network with high capacity lines, be it ADSL, Internet over CATV lines, or wireless. For the access network, transferring large amounts of users to ordinary users is not a major concern, but the payment of large amounts of traffic or high-bandwidth ports may be a factor due to the high operating costs of connecting to an upstream network provider in a paid peer relationship.

To ensure a positive end-user experience, which is clearly necessary for customer retention, the access network and content provider needs to ensure that their users do not get "bottle necks" or traffic joints between interactive users or content distribution endpoints.

Packets will flow

The Internet was originally designed as a highly viable network, allowing packets of information to route around blocks and points of failure in any network. This ability to overcome barriers and points of failure has a strange parallel in the dynamics of business relationships linked to the Internet.

As a more restrictive business structure or model becomes, an alternative model evolves or appears. The Internet community, by its very nature, wants neutrality, and has historically found ways to bypass restricted networks and legal barriers, allowing users to communicate freely with each other, regardless of the controls placed on network infrastructure, policy, security, and surveillance.

Like Internet bundles, the Internet community will find ways around Level 1 and enterprise based transport companies trying to restrict or restrict public Internet applications and services.

VoIP and the end of the phone networks

VoIP is closely monitored by the government, the telecom industry, and most importantly, the end user community. Pricing, call quality and ease of use are among the important topics, as are the controls and security implications of sending calls over a packet network.

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is not only concerned with the actual performance of the network, but must also look forward to the long-term question about convergence or video and conference integration, application sharing and network presence in the future. Today's world operates a numbering system called E.164. E.164 is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Recommendation for international and domestic telephone numbering systems. With VoIP, the E.164 numbering plan is gradually replaced by network presence indicators, which simply "authorize" your required identity on a phone or bundle network, and announce your availability for interactive or non-interactive communications.

The user's instant messaging identity is the best example of an active network presence indicator, but even instant messaging engines quickly add interactive voice modules to its interface. The audio unit can either be directly connected to the chat interface, or it can be "connected" to the interface through the presence guide.

The term "proxy" service is called ENUM. ENUM records are translated between E.164 phone numbering and network IP addresses or identities. Within a neutral packet exchange, ENUM records allow bulk VoIP operators or backbones to query a database with other VoIP phone numbers, and to pass VoIP calls to other IP networks<->IP, bypass any traditional transit phone operators upon completion or "terminating calls". If VoIP operators have peer agreements, this greatly reduces the amount that VoIP companies must pay to telephony service providers when starting or ending telephone traffic, allowing operators to bypass the telephone network Completely for end-to-end VoIP communication.

As all networks continue to migrate to the dial-up packet, ENUM will gradually become outdated. However, as a utility available in a neutral package exchange, many small networks can help save enough operating expenses to stay much longer than that.

Content distribution

Temporary storage companies have been around for several years, with Akamai the most prominent in almost every major data center. The reason is simple – put your content as close to the user as possible, and the user will get the best experience. Carrier hotels that fully support packet exchanges support content distribution. A company like Limelight, which distributes large amounts of media on demand, finds that there is an attractive hotel, because it allows the media to bypass the need for an intermediate or transit network. Then the performance for the end user completely depends on the performance of the access network.

If the net neutrality is not protected by HR5252, this problem becomes more severe. Both access networks and content owners will incur additional service or volume charges for delivering high bandwidth applications and content – such as VOD or media streaming. In a package exchange, the content provider is able to directly contact all participants within the exchange, and in most cases it delivers the content directly through the exchange, without charge.

Internet service provider

The ultimate benefit that a carrier hotel, particularly a carrier hotel that operates with neutral internet or packet exchange, can offer is between the ISP community. In some cases, internet dynamics justify sending the majority of traffic through one level 2 or first level network provider. You can enjoy the best possible performance, to get the best possible price. However, as the ISP continues to grow, the burden of paying transit fees or use of the upstream network provider may justify the relationships between direct peers.

The carrier hotel easily accommodates both physical connections, as well as data packet exchange. Packet exchange is best if an outlook is required among a large number of peers, and the volume of traffic is not very large. With increased traffic to one network, currency exchange traffic can be moved to a dedicated physical connection.

Conclusions

Carrier hotels and large neutral data centers are suitable sites for all levels of Internet networks, content providers and application providers. Given fears of an ineffective purity of neutrality in HR 5252, many Tier 2, Tier 3, and app / provider content providers are looking to carrier and neutral internet exchange to help bypass Tier 1 transit. Bypass will allow smaller networks and content providers to improve network and application performance Among the participating networks, in addition to reducing operating expenses incurred through usage-based invoices or port fees.