Located in northwest Florida, ten miles from the Alabama State line, Pensacola is rich in historical, military, and natural sights. Everyone has the Florida signature sun, sand, seafood and water.
Although St. Augustine, located on Florida's eastern or Atlantic coast, is considered the oldest city in the United States and came into existence after Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles sailed and established a colony on what could be argued on the western side of Pensacola or the Gulf of Mexico. title if his own arrangement had lasted.
Six years earlier, in August 1559, the Spanish explorer Tristan de Luna shot his anchor in the area, called Panzacola, for long-haired people, with the aim of carrying out the Mexican heroine Luis de Velasco. Spanish order to establish a Gulf settlement.
Well-equipped and prepared, he was equipped with 11 ships and brought in 1,500 potential colonists, including African slaves and Mexican Indians. But history was forced to take the wrong fork on the highway when an acute hurricane killed eight of De Luna's ships on 19 September.
However, he sent one of them to Veracruz, Mexico, to rescue the expedition, to provide relief, leaving immigrants' attention to shore-side life and survivors, bringing with them supplies. Instead of relocating the colonists, the ships that arrived a year later saved the survivors only by taking them to Havana and leaving them slightly above the military outpost in the spring of 1561. By August, a handful of soldiers had abandoned new land and returned to Mexico, finding it too dangerous to be inhabited.
Although unknown at the time, fame won the oldest continuous US city he could never do.
In fact, it would be almost 150 years later, in 1698, that foreign forces would try to get back on track – in which case Spain established and set up a more successful garrison to become modern day Pensacola. colonial city.
As has happened so often throughout history, the land, it was claimed, became a prize sought by other military means, and Pensacola was no exception. Initially, the Spanish surrendered to the French in May 1719, but it was hardly the end of his possession. France, Spain, Britain and Spain would take possession again in the next century, until the latter finally surrendered Florida in the United States in 1821. As the Confederacy also "settled", Pensacola is considered a "five-flag city". . "
A significant portion of its nearly 500-year history is preserved and can be experienced in the Pensacola Historic District, maintained by the UWF Historic Trust, itself an organization supported by the University of West Florida, and consisting of 27 properties on the National Register of Historic Places.
The entrance, which can only be purchased for a week, includes guided tours and visitor entry, and tickets are available from Tivoli High House.
There are many important structures. For example, Seville Square is the center of an old settlement and was one end of the British Route parade ground that ends in its twin, Plaza Ferdinand VII. It was here that General Andrew Jackson took the territory of West Florida from Spain in 1821 and first raised the US flag.
The small, surviving part of Fort George, which is the target of the American Revolution's Battle of Pensacola, symbolizes the British occupation of 1763-1781.
There are many original houses, including Julie Panton's Cottage, 1805 Lavalle House, 1871 Dorr House, and 1890 Lear-Rocheblave House.
The Old Christ Church, located on Seville Square and built by slave forces in 1824, is the oldest of its kind in the state, still occupying its original location.
There are also a number of museums: T. T. Wentworth, Jr., Florida State Museum, built in 1908, which originally served the Town Hall, Pensacola Children's Museum, Pensacola Multicultural Center Voices, and the Museum of Commerce.
Although not technically part of Pensacola's historic district, the Pensacola Grand Hotel is located on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Passenger Depot, which was built in 1912 to replace the original 1882 L&N Union Station that served Pensacola for 58 years. It is now on the National Register of Historic Places.
Restored to its original glory and transformed into a 15-story glass tower hotel, it retains much of its early decoration, including French clay tile roofs and ceramic mosaic floors, and is adorned with period pieces such as solid, bronze light and antique furniture.
Featuring a rich 1912 ground floor, the restaurant features Biva Doors on the London Driveway, a bronze cast bronze chandelier from Philadelphia, an 1885 sloped glass from Scranton Victorian Hotel and a combed-shaped barbecue at Lloyd's in London.
Pensacola Marine Station:
Naval Air Station Pensacola has several notable attractions that can be accessed from the visitor's gate and require an ID, such as a license, to enter.
Set in a naval yard erected in 1825, it became a flight training station with the outbreak of World War I, attended by nine officers, 23 mechanics, eight aircraft and ten beachside tents. the first of its kind.
Expanding dramatically as a result of World War II, it trained six 1,100 cadets who flew together for about two million hours. After the Naval Air Base Training Command moved from Corpus Christi, Texas to its headquarters in Pensacola, clean airplanes were transferred to the syllabus. Today, 12,000 active military personnel have been assigned to the station, 9,000 of whom are in aeronautical training.
The world-renowned Navy Aviation Museum is also the largest and one of Florida's most visited attractions. It began not as a tourist destination, but rather as a means of incorporating naval aviation history into cadet curricula, for which there was not enough time or money for traditional books and study.
Originally housed in a 8,500-square-foot timber-framed building dating back to World War II, the facility became the site for the selection, collection, storage, and display of aircraft and items representing service development and heritage. It opened its doors on June 8, 1963.
With ever expanding, the collection currently has 700 aircraft on display in 11 other official naval museums across the country, but about 150 intactly restored museums are still exhibited here after the new facility, which has 37 acres and 350,000 square feet of indoor space. the room was finished. Admission is free.
Divided into the first wing, the western wing, the second floor Mezzanine and the separate Hangar Bay, it monitors the development of naval aviation and aircraft from its inception to the recent Middle East conflicts.
For example, the A-1 trio got its name because when used in the three air (wings), water (floats) and land (wheels). World War I Nieuport 28 facilitated aircraft carrier testing, while the mammoth Navy-Curtiss NC-4, on the verge of exhibiting a golden age, was the first to cross the Atlantic from Trepassey, Newfoundland, to the Azores. Islands near Portugal.
During the Cold War, jet fighter jets are represented by types such as the McDonnell F2H-4 Banshee, North American FJ-2 Fury and Russian MiG-15.
The centerpiece of the west wing is the "USS Cabot" island and its replica copy, surrounded by an extensive collection of aircraft dating from World War II, including the Grumman F4F-3 Wildcat, the Vought-Sikorsky FG-1D Corsair and General Motors (Grumman) TBM Avenger.
Of the museum's numerous mezzanine exhibits, which have views of both the southern and western wings, and which can be accessed even on the airplane's stairs, there can be no one that offers greater contrast to each other than those dedicated to aerial aerospace and space exploration.
The spherical balloon, which was first successfully flown by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783, was large, controllable balloons that achieved self-buoyancy but included propulsion and steering wheels and elevators according to the turning area (steering) and longitudinal axis (pitch). . Hanging gondolas accommodated the crew and passengers. The rigid types had internal frames that non-rigid ones didn't need, such as glances.
On display are gondolas or driver cars for Navy L-8 and WWII K-47 airships. The last, delivered on May 19, 1943, in Moffett Field, California, had an internal volume of 425,000 cubic feet.
In the second, or space incident, a copy of the Mercury Freedom 7 space capsule, the original of which was projected at 116.5 nautical miles and carried in air / space for 14.8 minutes, represents Naval Aviation's contribution to the space program as Naval Aviator Alan B. Shepard became the first American to enter to this area on May 5, 1961.
Also on display is the original Skylab II Command Module, which orbited the Skylab Space Station for 28 days between May and June 1973. Managed by a three-member, all-Navy crew, the team set several records, including the longest manned space flight, the longest distance traveled, and the largest mass docked into space.
Both the mezzanine and the main floor feature a 75-foot, 10,000-square-foot Blue Angels atrium that combines south and west wings and features four Douglas A-4 Skyhawks diving diamonds painted in acrobatic team dark blue.
With a 55,000-square-foot exhibit space, Hangar Bay One includes aircraft such as the Sea King Sikorsky VH-3, which carried Presidents Nixon and Ford in the 1970s; Douglas R4D-5L Skytrain, which was the first to land on the Antarctic South Pole in 1956; and the supersonic destroyer Grumman F-14D Tomcat, which registered the last combat mission.
Guest services include additional tours, a giant on-screen laser theater with several daily films, two gift shops and a Cubi café.
Practical flights of the famous Blue Angels flight performance team can be viewed from the museum's airline, north of the museum.
Another historical attraction on Naval Air Station is the Pensacola Lighthouse.
Because of the strategic importance of Pensacola Harbor, in March 1823 Congress awarded $ 6,000 to build a lighthouse, selecting a suitable site in June, but temporarily replacing the floating alternative with the Aurora Borealis until completion. Carried out from the mouth of the Mississippi River, it was located just west of Santa Rosa Island.
The permanent structure, a 40-foot-wide white brick tower with ten whale oil lamps, each reinforced with a 14-inch reflector, was first set on fire on December 20 next year and allowed sailing ships to steer in that direction and then enter the harbor.
Although more useful than a replaced floating boat, by 1850 it began to show its flaws: it was obstructed by trees on Santa Rosa Island and its light was too dim to be an effective navigational aid, prompting a newly established lighthouse. The board recommends a replacement at least 150 feet in height.
Congress allocated $ 25,000 in response to his request in 1854, and two years later another $ 30,000. Construction of the new facility, located half a mile west of the original, was completed in 1858. Rising 159 feet from a 30-foot base and narrowing to a 15-foot height, it was first lit on New Year's Eve, 1859, by Keeper Palmes. It had the most powerful lens available at the time, primarily Fresnel.
The Pensacola Lighthouse, now listed in the National Register of Historic Places, offers visitors a glimpse into the life of mid-19th century light monitors. The visitor's center and museum shop are located in the 1890s Freight, the Richard C. Callaway Museum in 1869. keepers quarters, and the 177-level lighthouse itself, where you can climb Pensacola Bay for a view.
Another historically important landmark at Pensacola Marine Station is Fort Barranca.
"The Fort Bluffs on Pensacola Bay Bluffs were built to protect the United States from foreign invaders," the National Park Service said. "Where Fort Barranca was considered vital to defense, it today illustrates the evolution of military technology and American values."
Immediately after the Spanish surrender of Florida to the United States, the US Navy chose Pensacola Bay as the main yard of the Gulf Coast Navy and, with the decision, sent Army Corps engineering officers to reconsider the coastline to build fortifications to protect the Navy yard itself.
It was built in 1798 on the ruins of a Spanish fortress called Fort San Carlos de Barrancas – the Spanish word for "bluffs" – "Barrancas" – it was the third such fortress on the Gulf. The existing, in 1797, the Batteria de San Antonio was preserved and modified.
Since the sunrise until sunset, the enslaved laborers worked from March 21 to September 21, which included significant armament, including ten 24-pound cannons.
Although it was built as a defensive structure, it was only engaged in combat during the Civil War.
Due to new developments in cannons and naval warships, the US government began evaluating new coastguard proposals in 1885, and after the closure of the Second World War, it was declared a surplus in 1947.
From the visitor center, the trail leads to a real, kite-like fortress, with the most prominent features being a box and a ditch, a ditch, a rope, a bridge port, a guard room, an open parade and a water battery. The last two connected the tunnel. The self-propelled cannons fired from the water battery were designed to ricochet from the bay and strike ships on their waterways.
The four-foot-thick and 20-foot-high walls of the fort, made up of six million bricks, are fitted with arched ceilings and prized ceilings.
The nearby Advanced Redoubt, built between 1845 and 1870, protected the northern side of the peninsula, the site of the Pensacola Navy yard.
A bridge and pavement connected to the mainland by the Gulf Breeze, Pensacola Beach, eight miles from downtown Pensacola and accessed from southbound Interstate 110, is a narrow section of sugarcane on the Santa Rosa Barrier Island overlooking coastal emerald waters. Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico, and offer oceanic activities such as swimming, sunbathing, fishing, snorkeling, sailing and diving. The fiery reds, chartreuse and purple sunsets regularly color the sky.
A variety of hotels can be found near the beach, such as Surf and Sand, Margaritaville Beach and Portofino Island Resort, with well-known names such as Hampton Inn, Hilton, Holiday Inn, SpringHill Suites and Days Inn. Florida's recommended seafood restaurants with indoor and outdoor water views include Hemingway Island Grill, Flat Chowder House, Grand Marlin, Shaggy Pensacola Beach and Peg Leg Pete.
Stretching 1441 feet into the water, Pensacola Bay offers fishing for bluefish, pompano, redfish, Spanish mackerel and spotted sea trout. Flounder is not excluded.
Self-guided footprints of the sand ecotourism, marked with informative signs, provide an opportunity to learn about local plant and animal life, including dolphins, sharks, turtles, birds, fish and flowers. Each one explains a different ecological theme.
Pensacola Beach is part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, 160 miles from Fort Walton Beach in Florida to Cat Island in Mississippi, and includes barrier islands, marine forests, bays, marine habitats, and historic forts. Park Headquarters offers orientation films and exhibitions of the Live Naval Oaks Area. It is located on the island of Gulf Breeze between the mainland and Pensacola Beach.
Designed by the Gulf of Mexico, the National Seashore retains pockets of American history and culture and encapsulates Florida's flora and fauna. For example, dolphins, floating starfish, pelagics and seagulls can let the wind carry them in a panorama, created by water and sky.
One of the historic remains of the Gulf Coast National Coast is Fort Pickens, located at the western end of Santa Rosa Island, directly at the entrance to Pensacola Bay harbor at Fort Barrancas. What was named after Brigadier General Andrew Pickens, a patriot who fought prominently in South Carolina during the Revolutionary War, was once the largest brick structure in the Gulf of Mexico.
Finding its origin until 1821, when the Third Coastal Castle System was extended to protect the coastal communities of Pensacola Bay and its mainland, took on another purpose four years later, when the Legislative Assembly began to receive the Navy yard and depot. The defense troops were set to protect the west end of Santa Rosa Island with bluff fortifications north of the canal and the eastern end of Perdido Key.
Its construction began in 1829, under the supervision of the US Army Corps, after the government acquired 998 acres of land and a pentagonal-shaped building, constructed of more than 21.5 million bricks and equipped with more than 200 cannons, was completed five years later.
"(The workers) used building materials such as lime, water and sand for mixing the mortar; lumber for barbecuing and building quays, scaffolding and building support; and armature used in powder magazines; (and) bricks for main work and bear, "the National Park Service said.
If a 500-strong garrison was needed during the war, but capable of doubling in emergencies, a structure of five bastions, consisting of one casemate and a barbet stage, could release the ring of fire from the seaward side. walls.
The only battle he had ever experienced was during the Civil War.
Today visitors continue to enter Fort Pickens from their original sally post, with the main entrance moored with heavy oak trees. The plaster-lined quarters were both residential and hospital rooms. Arched casemates provided protected artillery positions and a base for second-rate cannons. The three main chambers, each holding 1,000 pounds of gunpowder, were connected to the tunnel system. The powder magazines storing the fort's black power supply were lined with wood to keep them dry and to prevent sparks from igniting, the soldiers' slippers were covered with boots. The generator room was the location of steam-powered generators installed in 1903 to supply electricity for searchlights and other modern appliances.
The left shell formed a dry base to protect the bird from land-based attacks. Rainwater was collected and stored in tanks for drinking. And the bastion of the tower overlooking the canal provided protection for the harbor.